India is the leading country to enter accelerator-based research. Due to the foresight of Dr. Meghnad Saha, in 1953, Saha Nuclear Physics Institute, Kolkata established 37 cyclotrons. It was soon followed by various institutions in India such as the Tata Physical Research Institute (TIFR), Mumbai, Aligarh Muslim. University, Aligarh: Many accelerators of the type Cokroft Walton were installed at Bose Institute, Kolkata, and Andhra University, Waltair.
In the sixties, so many Van de Graff accelerators were installed – 5.5 MV Terminal Machine Bhabha Atomic Research Kent. (BARC), Mumbai (1963); 2 MV Terminal Machine Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur; 400 kV Terminal Machine Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Punjabi University, Patiala. 66 cm Cyclotron provided by the University of Rochester, USA was established at Panjab University, Chandigarh.
A small electron accelerator was also established at Poona University, Pune. A major initiation in the seventies and eighties was done by the Parivati Energy Cyclotron Center (VECC), Kolkata, by creating variable energy cyclotrons using purely Indian means; Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) Bhai developed and built 2MV Tandem Van de Graff accelerator and 14 MV Tandeya Pelletron accelerator was installed at Tata Bhowmik Research Institute.
Shortly thereafter, the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi has set up Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) as an inter-university facility. A 15MV Tandem Pallaton in New Delhi: A 3MV Depe Pelletron at the Institute of Physics Bhavneshwar; Two at the Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration, Exploration, and Research, Hyderabad and Indira Gandhi Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam. 7MV Tandetrans installed. Both TIFR and TUAC have their own feature superconducting LINAC modules that are used to accelerate ions to higher energies. Pushing forward with.
In addition to those accelerators, the Department of Atomic Energy has also developed many-electron accelerators. A 2Gev synchrotron radiation source is being manufactured at Raja Ramanna Agartavartha Technology Center, Indore. The Atomic Energy Department is considering accelerating power plants for power generation and reproduction of fissile material as an option in the future.
A cyclotron is an accelerating device of charged particles or ions to high energies. It was invented by E.O. in 1934 to explore the nuclear structure by Lorenz and M. s. Livingston. Both the electric field and the magnetic field are used jointly in the cyclotron to increase the energy of charged particles.
Since these two fields are placed perpendicular to each other, these are called crossed regions. The cyclotron uses the fact that “the frequency of rotation of charged particles rotating in a magnetic field does not depend on the energy of the particle.” Particle most of the time between two semicircular discs such as metal characters, D and D. Motion. These metal characters are called ‘Dees‘ because they look like the letter ‘D’ in the English alphabet. The figure shows the arrangement diagram of the cyclotron. Particles shielded within metal boxes Live and the electric field does not work on them.
However, the magnetic field acts on the particle due to which it moves circularly inside a ‘D’. Each time the particle moves from one ‘D’ to another ‘D’ Each time an electric field acts on it. The electric field sign changes alternately and its currency is in sync with the circular motion of the particle. Every time Acceleration increases the energy of the particle
As the radius of its circular path increases, it also increases. Therefore, the path of the particle is spiral-shaped, so that the combination between ions and air molecules is minimized. A high alternating voltage is applied to the dies.
In the diagram shown in Figure, cation or positively charged particles (particle protons) are released at the center P. They fall into the spaces between the dies in a T / 2-time interval, moving along a semicircular path in a ‘D’.
Based on direct arguments, this frequency is called the cyclotron frequency and is denoted by. Applied to the cyclotron. The frequency of the voltages. It is adjusted such that the time the ion completes its half revolutions the time the polarity of the dies changes. The condition required for this is V. = v called the condition of agar. Source The K is adjusted in such a way that when the cation reaches the end of D, then at that time D is at a lower potential and ions accelerate in this space.
Particles within the dees move in a region where the electricity Area does not. The energy of the particle increases by Vq each time the particle moves from one D to another D (here v is the voltage between DZ.)
it is clear that the radius of the paths of the particles Each time, the kinetics increase as the kinetic energies increase. Frequent accelerations between the ion phases are accelerated. Until they have attained the energy required to have a radius approximately equal to Dez. At that time, again, they are analyzed by the magnetic field and exit from the body through the output shaft.